Thursday, March 19, 2020
The Longevity of Earth essays Scientists and geologists often discuss issues concerning the environment on Earth. What causes the greenhouse effect and global warming are issues that geologists talk about all the time. Global warming is the term used to describe increases in the temperature of the Earth. The greenhouse effect is a natural process that helps keep the Earths temperatures at levels that can sustain life. Without certain greenhouse gases, the atmosphere cannot absorb the suns heat energy, making Earth extremely cold. Likewise, heat that is not absorbed gets trapped within the atmosphere. Some of these greenhouse gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. The buildup of these gases is the main cause of global warming. Global warming has devastating effects on the Earths environment because it causes shifts in the weather, changes in water patterns, and problems for civilized people. In order to talk about global warming, geologists must first understand what causes the greenhouse effect. Many of the suns heat rays are absorbed by water vapor, which is a natural component of the Earths atmosphere. Water vapor accounts for 80 percent of natural greenhouse warming. The remaining 20 percent is due to other gases that are present in very small amounts (Murck, et al., 488). Carbon dioxide is another gas that absorbs heat energy from the sun. Whenever fossil fuels are burned, carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere. The more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the more heat that gets absorbed. This causes the atmosphere to heat up, which increases the Earths temperature, affecting both the land and the oceans. As seawater heats up, evaporation occurs, causing the cycle to start again, releasing even more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Once this cycle starts, it is extremely difficult to control. Another greenhouse gas is methane, which absorbs infrared radiation 25 times more effectively than c...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Transfer Student Requirements What Do Universities Look For SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Being a transfer student has benefits, but it can be even harder to navigate than applyingas a freshman straight out of high school. Transfer student requirements can be tricky to figure out, as many college application guides are written with freshmen in mind. Despite the difficulty, being a transfer student is worth it. Whether you want to transfer because youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready to move from community college to a four-year university or because your school isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the right fit, this guide will help you learn what colleges look for in transfer students and how to make your application more appealing to colleges. Knowing the unique obstacles transfer students may face gives you a better chance to avoid them. What Do College Expect From Transfer Students? There are many reasons to transfer from one college to another. Regardless of what reason you're transferring,itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to understand that being a transfer student, though beneficial and helpful for many people, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily easy. The acceptance rate for transfer students is generally lower than it is for freshman. That doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean you shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be a transfer student or that itÃ¢â¬â¢s a bad choice- it means you need to plan ahead and follow through, just as you would if you were a high school student applying to a four-year school. You can transfer schools for all kinds of reasons, but be sure you have a good reason when youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll be writing essays and potentially conducting interviews and visits, and being prepared to answer the question of why youÃ¢â¬â¢re transferring will make you a stronger candidate. Setting aside people who have no option but to transfer, such as those reaching the end of community college transfer programs or people in the military, there are lots of reasons you might want to transfer. But when youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to schools,you should be aware that there are some reasons schools will see as Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ - as in, reasons that will make you an appealing student- and some theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll see as Ã¢â¬Å"bad.Ã¢â¬ What Are Good Reasons to Transfer? Good reasons to transfer are pretty much the same as good reasons to apply to a college from high school: You like an academic program a school offers You can see attending helping your ultimate career goals You like their mission as a college Your current school doesn't offer the program you want Your current school isn't a good "fit" What Are Bad Reasons to Transfer? Even if one of the reasons you want to transfer is something a college might see as bad, that doesn't mean that transferring isn't the right option for you. Keep in mind that colleges are looking for stronger reasoning- think more in terms of your long-term academic growth and potential than any immediate problems.Reasons for transferring that colleges might frown on include: You're not getting along with your roommate You're struggling to keep up with classes You're homesick If any of these are the reason that you're thinking about transferring, that's okay.But instead of framing your essay around how bad your roommate is, see if you can find another way to look at that problem. Is it really about your roommate, or is it because your school culture isn't a good fit? If itÃ¢â¬â¢s the latter, how will your new college fix the issue? Have you done more research to ensure the same problem doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen again? These are the kinds of questions you should be able to answer to assure your school that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re the right fit for you and that you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t want to transfer again later. How To Transfer Without Losing Credits Most transfer problems occur when trying to transfer credits.Some 40 percent of transfer students receiveno creditswhen transferring schools, equating to hundreds of lost hours and dollars with nothing to show for them. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to make transferring part of your plan from the beginning if youÃ¢â¬â¢re starting at a community college- you need to be sure that your time and money are well-spent. Too few credits isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the only problem. Students can also end up with too many credits, which can be a hindrance, especially if youÃ¢â¬â¢re seeking financial aid or trying to get into a new degree program. Again, this means that planning is vital. The sooner you can be sure that you want to transfer, the better- a plan will help prevent wasting your time and money. To be sure youÃ¢â¬â¢re on track to transfer successfully, consult with an adviser and start researching your next schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s transfer department as soon as possible. If you can, contact your schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s transfer admissions office and see if they offer advising sessions or planning assistance. Don't feel like you're chained to your college if it's not a good fit! Basic Transfer Student Requireents To be a successful transfer student, the most important thing you need to do is be a successfulcollege student. The criteria colleges look for from transfer students is much the same as it is for graduating high school students, just scaled up. Good grades are one of the most important things admissions offices look for in transfer applications. If struggling in school is one of the reasons you want to transfer, be prepared to explain what steps you're taking to improve them in your college essay. The main focus of your essay should not be that you're struggling to keep up, but rather that you're addressing the reason for the struggle, such as a program that isn't a good fit.Even better, demonstrate that you're working to improve by continuing to work hard and improve your grades as you're going through the transfer process. Test scores are less important as a college transfer. Though schools may request them if you're transferring after just one or two semesters, the further you are into your college education, the less test scores matter.If it's been more than five years since you were in school and since you took a standardized test, you may consider taking the SAT or ACT again so that your transfer school has a good idea of where you're at academically, but if it hasn't been long and your college transcripts are solid, it shouldn't be necessary. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re an international student, you may have some additional considerations. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to work with your designated school official and be sure all your paperwork, including work and student visas, is up to date and accurate. As an international student, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be contending with all the same obstacles as domestic students, with a few additional hurdles like language barriers, transferring papers properly, and visas. Plan as early as possible to avoid hiccups in the process. Finding the right transfer school is its own form of homework. How To Find the Right Transfer School No matter what your reason for transferring is, you want to know for certain that your next school will be a good fit. Transferring is a lengthy process that can result in wasted money if itÃ¢â¬â¢s not done properly, and the more you try to do it, the more likely you are to run into trouble. To minimize your need to transfer, research extensively. Make sure your new school: Has the degree program youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for Offers extracurriculars that appeal to you Has a campus culture that you can see yourself participating in Has a mission statement that aligns with your values Those are just some of the things you should know before transferring. Imagine that you only get one shot, and whatever school you end up at will be your last. Are you happy with your choice? What concessions are you willing to make? As if you were applying straight out of high school, make a list of schools that appeal to you and narrow it down to a manageable amount. Be sure these are all schools you can see yourself at until youÃ¢â¬â¢ve completed your degree program. The Common Data Set and College Board can give you valuable information about school statistics, including transfer rates. Transfer rates should be factored into your list of colleges youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be applying to, as transfer rates can move a school from safety to reach depending on how many transfer students they admit per year. Many high-profile schools accept only a handful of transfer students per year, so your application needs to really stand out. When youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying, be sure that youÃ¢â¬â¢re following the guidelines specifically for transfer students. Deadlines may be different for freshman admissions, so keep an eye on when things are due specifically for transfer students. Coordinate with your adviserif you can to be sure that youÃ¢â¬â¢re on target with everything you need. You don't want your new school to see you as just another interchangeable Lego. What Do Universities Look for in a Transfer Student? One of the most important factors in your transfer application is why youÃ¢â¬â¢re transferring. This is also true for students transferring from community colleges- Ã¢â¬ because I want to finish my degreeÃ¢â¬ is only half an answer, as schools will also want to know why youÃ¢â¬â¢ve chosen to transfer to your new school in particular. Even if your school doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t require a Ã¢â¬Å"Why this school?Ã¢â¬ essay as part of the transfer process, itÃ¢â¬â¢s good to have an answer in the back of your mind. ItÃ¢â¬â¢ll help inform your answer to whatever essay prompt they require, which can strengthen your writing. Because transfer acceptance rates are lower, itÃ¢â¬â¢s even more important that your essay be polished, interesting, and informative. Follow the typical best practices for writing a college essay, but also be sure that your essay tracks your growth as a college student and why transferring to this specific school is the right move for you. Aside from the question of why youÃ¢â¬â¢re transferring, colleges also want to see good grades. In the same way that AP and honors courses in high school demonstrate that youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready for college, success in college courses prove that youÃ¢â¬â¢re a strong student. Because college is an investment in you as well as for you, good grades are a reliable measure of success at your transfer school. The further you are from high school, the less your high school grades matter. Your transfer school will want to see college courses if you have them, so even if your high school grades are overall stronger, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re less likely to be a determining factor in your application if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve already put in a year or more at your current school. Distance from high school also means that your standardized test scores matter significantly less.If you're in your first or second semester of college, it's wise to include them since you haven't yet had a lot of time to establish a college-level academic record. If you're a full year or more into college, you probably won't need to include them, with rare exceptions. If itÃ¢â¬â¢s been five years since you last took a standardized test and your grades arenÃ¢â¬â¢t quite up to your new schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s standards, it might be wise to retake it. You can calculate your percentile versus the school average to better evaluate whether or not retaking the test is a good choice for you. Despite the additional criteria and lower rate of admissions, four-year schools are often looking for very similar features in freshman students and transfer students. They want to see a demonstrated effort to do well and commitment to a program, as well as a plan for how your new school will help you achieve your goals. A strong transfer application will look much like a strong freshman application, but with letters of recommendation and grades from college instead of high school. You need to work as hard on your transfer application as you would if you were transferring as a fresh high school graduate. What Information Should You Include on Your Transfer Application? Again, a good transfer application will look very similar to a good freshman application. However, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to scale everything up- with lower acceptance rates for transfer students, itÃ¢â¬â¢s even more important that your application be polished and strong. When it comes to test scores, grades, and letters of recommendation, be sure youÃ¢â¬â¢re getting them from recent sources. By college, your high school biology teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s assessment of you isnÃ¢â¬â¢t as relevant as a college professorÃ¢â¬â¢s assessment. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re just starting out in college, you might have a hard time getting letters of recommendation from your teachers as they may not have spent as much time with you. Seek letters from instructors who know you best, though be sure you know your new schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s policy on letters from teaching assistants. Some schools will only take letters from professors, so look that up ahead of time. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t reuse your high school letters. A positive letter from a college professor carries far more weight, so seek those out by meeting with your professors during office hours and by participating in class. These tips will help you make your application and beautiful and unique as this flower. Key Tips for Making Your Application Stand Out Knowing whatuniversities look for in a transfer studentis only half the battle- you also need to know how to turn that knowledge into action. #1: Know Why YouÃ¢â¬â¢re Transferring Of course, you should know why youÃ¢â¬â¢re transferring to a different school. But you should also demonstrate that knowledge in your application and interviews- schools want to understand the reason behind your decision, and it will almost certainly factor into your application essay. As discussed above, you should have a strong reason why transferring is necessary. Maybe youÃ¢â¬â¢ve changed programs or youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking to join a new community because your current one isnÃ¢â¬â¢t fulfilling. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t knock your current school to prop up your application- instead, focus on the positive aspects your new school has to offer. For example, say the community at your school isnÃ¢â¬â¢t really your scene. Maybe you were hoping for a thriving arts community, but your school doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really have one. Instead of saying that you expected one thing and got another (suggesting to your new school that you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do enough research, or accusing your current school of misrepresenting itself), frame it as a time of discovery. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"As IÃ¢â¬â¢ve developed as a student, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve found myself more interested in being part of an artistic community, which [New School] is famed for. When I look at photos from poetry readings on campus or browse the current gallery exhibits, I want to see myself there, too!Ã¢â¬ is a much stronger way of phrasing disengagement from your school community than, Ã¢â¬Å"Pictures led me to believe that [Current School] had a lot of artistic events on campus, but that hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been the case. I want to attend poetry readings and see artwork produced by students, not just football games.Ã¢â¬ #2: Focus on Grades Grades are the biggest factor in transfer applications. Your grades need to be strong, especially with the limited acceptance rates for transfer students. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re struggling in your current school, identify the cause and try to remedy it before you apply. Even if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve already made up your mind to transfer, that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean you should slack off in your current school. Transfer applications often require mid-year reports, which will ask your current professors to evaluate your performance and predict your grade at the end of the term. You want that report to be good, so keep performing well in your current classes. #3: Treat Your Application Like a FreshmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Despite having some college courses under your belt, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily have an advantage because transfer rates are typically lower than freshman admission rates. Because youÃ¢â¬â¢re not guaranteed a spot, put time and effort into polishing your application to its finest. An application is your opportunity to make a good impression, so donÃ¢â¬â¢t lean on your college experience to do the work for you. How would you promote yourself if you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have it? College experience, even an associateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, is like frosting rather than a whole cake. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t deliver your school a tub of frosting- deliver them a beautifully baked cake with the additional embellishments that come from college experience. The earlier you start planning, the better. When Should You Plan to Transfer? Ideally, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been planning to transfer from the beginning, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been working with your adviserand transfer school to make the process smoother. But thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not always the case- sometimes you donÃ¢â¬â¢t foresee a program switch, or maybe youÃ¢â¬â¢re moving due to military enlistment. The best time to start planning for your transfer is when you start school. The second best time to start planning for your transfer is now, so get started right away! Once youÃ¢â¬â¢re certain that you want to transfer, set up an appointment with your adviserand go over your current credits, what credits will transfer, and what additional things youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to successfully move to a new school. Create an academic plan and follow it. If you need to transfer sooner than a plan will allow, work with an adviserto determine your best path forward. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t try to do it all on your own- navigating required credits versus transferable credits can be extremely difficult, and having an advocate will make everything easier on you. If you do want to do some individual research, you can use College Transfer, a tool that helps students compare college transfer programs and find out if credits transfer,to get a good sense of how well youÃ¢â¬â¢re prepared to transfer. When to Transfer From a Community College Universities and community colleges often have partnerships, called articulation agreements, to make the transfer easier. These are a huge boon in transferring, as it means thereÃ¢â¬â¢s already a pathway for success. Take advantage of it if you can! If your current school and your desired school donÃ¢â¬â¢t have an articulation agreement, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s okay. It just means that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to be a little more diligent in your planning and research- again, the help of an adviserwill be invaluable. Generally, community college students transferring to a four-year university will want to do so after completing the requirements for their associateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, meaning youÃ¢â¬â¢ll enter your four-year school as a junior. An associateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree effectively locks your credits in. If you want to take some time off before transferring, you can do so without worrying that your credits will depreciate. If you transfer before receiving your associateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, your credits may actually lose value, meaning youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to take more classes to transfer successfully, costing you more money and time. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no foolproof time in the year to transfer. Stay on top of your academic plan and your required credits, and plan to transfer when youÃ¢â¬â¢re finished. When to Transfer From One Four-Year School to Another There are plenty of reasons to transfer from one four-year college to another, but be sure that if thatÃ¢â¬â¢s your plan, that youÃ¢â¬â¢re not transferring for frivolous reasons. Roommate problems and homesickness wonÃ¢â¬â¢t read particularly well to admissions offices, so try to seek other solutions before deciding to transfer. The most important thing to consider is that many of your credits may not transfer. This might set you back in time and money, as you may end up retaking courses similar to those you already completed. Meet with an adviserto understand how to best select courses that will help you transfer successfully. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no best time of year to transfer, though if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough credits, you may actually be transferring in as a freshman alongside first-time college students. Again, meeting with an adviseris your best bet to make sure you apply properly. When to Transfer if YouÃ¢â¬â¢re in the Military If youÃ¢â¬â¢re in the military, the decision to transfer schools may not be entirely up to you. Moving is common and often required, which means that the military has measures in place to ensure your education wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be seriously impacted provided you follow the rules. The GI Bill ensures that you have special allowances to attend multiple schools at the same time, provided that your courses are all part of the same program. These courses and credits can be transferred from one school to another with ease, meaning your transfer wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be as difficult as some others. However, the restrictions mean you need to be sure all your courses are part of your program, or you may run into trouble. Meet with an adviserregularly to be sure that youÃ¢â¬â¢re on track. Because you likely wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have much say in when youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to move schools, the GI Bill ensures that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be concerned about when you transfer. Just stay on target with your academic plan! When to Transfer if YouÃ¢â¬â¢re an International Student International students may transfer from secondary school in their home country to a four-year school in the United States, or from one four-year school to another. However, because of additional requirements for international students, itÃ¢â¬â¢s even more important that you be aware of deadlines, paperwork requirements, and credit transfer. Your visa may actually restrict which colleges you can attend, so be sure that youÃ¢â¬â¢re familiar with what schools you can transfer to. Schools may also have additional requirements or specific deadlines for international students, so always check that youÃ¢â¬â¢re in contact with the designated school official as well as any advisersyou have. You should always look for international student-specific information if it exists to prevent yourself from missing a deadline due to it not applying for international students. As with transferring schools for other kinds of students, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no hard-and-fast Ã¢â¬Å"bestÃ¢â¬ time to do it. All other information applies- if you have an associateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, you may be able to transfer as a junior and lock in your credits. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have an associateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be evaluated on a course-by-course basis. Keep all that in mind as youÃ¢â¬â¢re planning your transfer to ensure that the picture you present to your next school is as flattering as possible. What Next? No matter where you're at in your academic career, you may be eligible for financial assistance. Learn how to apply for financial aid to ensure you get the best award! If staying on top of your grades has been an issue so far in your college career, don't panic. There are plenty of great schools with low GPA requirements. The best way to get into your dream school is to treat your application like it's for the most selective colleges around. This guide for how to get into Harvard will walk you through what a great application looks like, and how to spruce up your own application. Want to build the best possible college application? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit. We want to get you admitted to your dream schools. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Fruitful occasions.Project Management - Essay Example The philosophy used in developing the project is based on the traditional (PMBOK Guide) A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. It also incorporates the benefits and pitfalls of different techniques uses to breakdown the work structure and tools used to plan and execute the project. The risk management structure is enforced and in place during the entire project cycle and different strategies are being used to mitigate and manage possible risk. The risk management structure monitors the progress of the project executed and develops strategies to reduce the impact of any future risk on the project as well. The project is based in Bahrain and further implications of productive prospective are included contained in the project scope. 1. Project Overview: Fruitful Occasions is a service that facilitates serving delicious fresh fruit and flowers nationwide for any occasion. It specialises in artistic flower making in combination with fresh fruits, which not only looks pleasan t to eyes but also taste delicious. Customer satisfaction is the key element therefore fresh gourmet chocolate and fruits are utilised in bouquets and gift sets so that it could create a lasting impression for special occasions. Orders can either be customised or placed from catalogue through the website. Customers can select order according to the occasion or random and add to their shopping cart. Payments are accepted through PayPal, Credit and Debit Cards only. CustomerÃ¢â¬â¢s details are saved in the order form in order to maintain confidentiality of the order. Once the order has been placed, the invoice will be sent to the customer for acknowledgement. With the acceptance of order, a contract will be established between the client and the company. In case of changes in price, first it will be communicated to the customer, if agreed then the order will be preceded (Fruitful Occasions, 2012). This report illustrates the entire project life cycle from execution, planning, schedu ling and controlling the process by usage of resources in finite time to achieve a suitable goal. It will facilitate towards provision of exclusive services in Bahrain, which includes gifts delivery, flowers and fruits bouquets nationwide. The project is time specified and within qualitative and cost constraints (Kerzner, 2009). 2. Characteristics of the Project: It is implemented under the Project Charter, which encompasses the needs and specification of the project within its defined scope. The characteristics of the project are further illustrated below (Kerzner, 2009, pp. 23-27). 2.1 Aims and Objectives: The aim of this project is the execution of flower and fruits gift services in Bahrain, which shall be par excellence of the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demands. The objectives are finite as it aims to reach household and corporate sector. It works on demand and premium delivery services to ordinary delivery services that is attainable and can be measurable in terms of profit and happy cu stomers. 2.2 Scope and Constraints: The scope of the project facilitates to provide premium or excellent quality flowers and fresh delicious fruits to the new market. It will also focus on high customer satisfaction and PR reviews. The funds for the project are within the project scope as executed by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s management and board. Lastly, the time is critical and important for the project life cycle therefore it is essential for the project to be completed with the prescribed time limit. 2.3 Stakeholders: The main stakeholder of the project is the company
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Engineer - Essay Example People have enabled themselves to travel to other continents in a matter of hours and to communicate instantly with others. The advancement in the engineering technology areas has shortened long distances and enabled humans to have more space and time. A new example of this is the Giant Telescope links to London from New York, underneath the Atlantic Ocean by the Internet Technology. I chose the Engineering program to equip myself with the proper knowledge to deal with the advancement of technology and the new inventions. One of my long-term professional and personal goals is to have my engineering program become my window for most of the advancements and to feed my interests in the science behind the inventions. Moreover, I need to build better experiences and apply what I have learned from my engineering theory putting it into practice at work. It is my aim to work for one of the industrial companies, to gain more experiences and skills and one day develop my own technology and/or manufacture it. Currently, I am planning to obtain my double major degree in Mechanical Engineering and Manufacturing Engineering and work in the industry. After gaining experiences in the professional field, I plan to obtain a master degree in Engineering Management to be able to learn managerial skills. Thus, I will be able to apply the management skills into my own factory in the future. Additional skills and discipline in working as a team member and in managing the time to accomplish tasks on time was gained throughout learning continuously in the school of engineering each quarter. I learned how to optimize my output and my groupÃ¢â¬â¢s output within a fixed time frame. Moreover, the discipline that has been gained will continue in my life, to learn how to tackle challenges and how to overcome all obstacles in obtaining my goals. I learned how to utilize more than one resource for engineering science, to
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Organisational Dynamics The Times Of India Business Essay The Times of India is a daily, English language broadsheet of India. It has been certified as being the most selling and widest circulated English daily in the world by the Audit Bureau of Circulation. The average circulation of The Times of India for the year 2010 was 34.3 lakh copies. The Times of India has a readership of 70.3 lakh readers daily, as per the Indian Readership Surveys 2010 figures. It is hence the top English daily in India in terms of readership as well. The Times of India has been in existence since 1838, when it was established as the Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce, headquartered in Mumbai. In the mid-19th century, it was renamed as The Times of India. After independent, the newspaper passed into the hands of the Dalmiya family, and later went to the Sahu Jain family, who are the current owners. Todays The Times of India is published by Bennett, Coleman and Company Limited (BCCL). This media house also publishes various other newspapers, such as Economic Times, Mumbai Mirror, Maharashtra Times, etc. Culture of Times of India Given below is the culture of Times of India newspaper is described based on interviews conducted with employees of the organization. Bureaucratic: It is gathered from these interviews that TOI is a bureaucratic organization. There are formalised rules, procedures and processes in place to manage the organisation. The division of roles is formal and complete. There are clearly defined hierarchies as well, with a clear line of authority. This is primarily because it is a big organisation, and having commonly established practises makes managing it easier. Less propensity to risk taking: The organization does not believe in taking big risks, or chances that could mar the image of the organization. The employees are encouraged to conform to fixed codes of conduct and play safe, rather than thinking out of the box. Experimentation is therefore not a part of the organizational culture. Rigidity: In keeping with its bureaucratic structure, the organization follows an established and rigid way of functioning. It is hierarchical, and there are strict rules, regulations, codes of conduct and job profiles, so that every employee has a very specific job description and the areas of overlap are also defined. Hence, there is very little room to allow for individual cases or issues that the employee may have. This rigidity also makes the organisation less open to experimentation or change. Individuals, not teams: The work of departments, and within the department, each individual, is clearly outlines. Hence, because every employee has a differentiated job, the focus is on individual performances and roles rather than a team is an integral part of the organization. Also, most of the jobs are such that only one person can do them at a time-only one person can write an article, conduct an interview or do a graphic. However, despite this division of labour, the final product should look like one. Ethics held supreme: Ethics are valued above everything else. TOI has a Journalistic Code of conduct that deals with ethics. Any violations of this code are dealt with severely. The paper has a huge reputation to protect in the market, and its current status is primarily due to this reputation. Task oriented: The newspaper industry is highly volatile. Employees readily change jobs. The contract system is operational, and hence changing jobs is easy. Further, there are constantly new media options, and employees have more and more offers from outside. Hence, the focus at TOI is on the task and not the employee. Essentially, the position and the job are more important than the person occupying the post. This is interestingly seen in the way that the HR addresses employees: By their designation (position) first, and then their name. This order speaks a lot. Large power distance: Because the organizational structure is hierarchical, there is a large power distance between employees at higher levels and their subordinates. Power at higher levels is acquired through experience, and the inequality in power is seen as acceptable. Further, the subordinates almost never interact with their much higher-ups. Conformity: The culture is conserving in nature as it encourages conformity to already established norms and values. This ties in with other elements of the organisational culture as well, namely focus on playing it safe rather than experimentation and the rigid and bureaucratic structure of the organisation. Less openness: There is less openness and confrontation within the organization as employees are not very comfortable with expressing themselves to their superiors. Further, the organisational culture encourages that conflicts be resolved through diplomacy and tact rather than open confrontation. Confidentiality valued: This is also an important characteristic of the culture of TOI. Confidentiality and mutual commitments are honoured in the internal and external dealings of the organization. The employees who were interviewed refused to share the evaluation processes that are carried out within the organization. Traditions and rituals: TOI, being an old and established organisation, has a lot of traditions. These include events such as celebration of festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi, Holi and Makar Sankrant. The organisation also builds its culture using stories and narrations from the past, which embody the TOI culture. Inter-departmental distance: There is a large distance between the departments and also, the various newspaper publications. The editorial and business sides of the newspaper are constantly in conflict due to their seemingly contrasting roles. Less politics: Unlike most large organisations, TOI does not have a lot of petty politics at play. This is primarily because the promotions happen on basis of seniority and experience in the organisation, and are not subjective. Appraisals also happen through more than one person, and hence are not completely one-sided and prone to bias. Also, since the organisations culture focuses on the profile and not the person, the importance of personal politics is greatly reduced. Autonomy: TOI has clearly defined roles and profiles for all its employees; hence division of labour is complete. Within their designated roles, employees are given a fairly free hand with quite a lot of autonomy. The editors and superiors are available for consultation or collaboration, but the employees are encouraged to get the work done themselves. They can also make key decisions related to their roles. Information flows freely: Due to the large organisational size, employees are not always consulted in decisions-the decision making happens at the top and is not participatory. Even so, employees are always informed of decisions, events, change that is imminent, etc. TOI, as a media house, has good intra-organisational communication channels as well-by means of an intranet, e-fliers, in-house newsletter, etc. TOI Mission Statement: To be the leading provider of news, by providing timely, accurate and multi-dimensional news. To be the first paper the reader reads today and every day, by delivering consistently high standards of journalism. Functional aspects of culture: Organisational pride: The members of the group take pride in the organisation; it gives them a sense of identity for organization members. This increases loyalty to the organisation. Less politics: This is a functional aspect of the culture, because it helps deliver consistently high standards of journalism. Politics often leads to bickering, gossip, formation of factions, partiality, etc. As a result, often the best person is not chosen for a task due to bias in the selection process, or there is unnecessary conflict forming between individuals and groups. High levels of politics make the work environment extremely volatile, and are unwelcoming for new employees. Politics also discounts the importance of good and hard work, merit and dedication, and encourages a culture of power play, schemes and sucking up. Control and uniformity: Culture serves as a sense making and control mechanism that guides and shapes the attitudes and behaviour of employees. Autonomy: Autonomy is a functional part of the organisational culture because it helps achieve the mission of timely news. Employees are empowered to act autonomously within their designated roles, without the constant interference of their colleagues or superiors. This makes the delivery extremely fast and efficient, and timely. Diversity and multiple perspectives: TOI seeks to be a media mega mart that informs the customer, creates community value, delights the smart shopper, provides cutting-edge solutions to the advertiser, and believes in the magic of the idea.Ã This is ensured by diversity in the employees of the organisation, and helps achieve the multi-dimensional goal of its mission statement. Regular feedback: The employees are given regular feedback from their superiors. This is extremely motivating, as employees feel their work is being marked / noticed. This motivation will lead to better and higher quality output. Further, if any employee is delivering quality that is not appropriate of the TOI standards, the feedback mechanism can bring this to his notice. Hence, regular and comprehensive feedback is a suitable manner of ensuring and sustaining quality of the output-consistently high standards of journalism. Ethics: TOI insists on very high ethical standards. Dodgy and underhand journalistic practises are disallowed and against the organisations culture. This helps maintain the accuracy of the news, as well as ensure its multidimensionality. Because collection of news has been done ethically, accuracy of news is guaranteed. Also, the journalist must speak to all persons involved in the issue, and give a balanced, non biased view. Hence, all dimensions of the issue are considered fairly. Free flow of information within the organisation: Information flows freely in TOI. There are good intra-organisation communication channels, such as the intranet, newsletters, etc. Hence, employees are always kept up-to-date about the managements decisions and imminent changes. This has a positive, binding effect on the organisation, and inculcates a sense of oneness in the employees. Feelings of alienation are averted. This improves the individuals loyalty to the organisation and dedication to their job, which again positively affects the output. Dysfunctional Aspects of culture: Interdepartmental discordance: There seems to be discordance between the different departments of the organisation, especially the business and editorial departments. This is a dysfunctional aspect of the culture, because both need to work together to achieve the best possible output. Both are dependent on each other, and none can work in isolation. Mutual understanding will ensure a more harmonious relationship and overarching organisational unity. Large power distance: The hierarchical structure is fairly rigid. Hence, the lower levels do not interact with the higher levels at all. This can lead to a sense of alienation. The higher-ups may be out of tune with the prevailing problems or mood at the lower organisational level. The large power distance can affect the organisations cohesiveness. Low scope for experimentation: TOI does not really encourage experimentation, preferring that employees play safe and stick to tried-and-tested options. This is an age of change and media explosion. If TOI wants to survive in these times, it is necessary that it inculcate a sense of experimentation and risk taking. This will help it remain the first paper that the reader reads, because even the reader wants novelty and something new. Limited recognition: TOI does not really recognise achievements of its employees formally and publically. Informal feedback and praise by the superiors does happen. But formally, it does not. To motivate employees and get from them the best possible output, it is necessary to recognise them publically as well. Rigidity: Rigidity comes through the prevailing bureaucracy. This acts as a barrier to change. Consistency of behaviour is an asset to an organisation when it faces a stable environment, however it can burden the organisation and make it difficult to respond to changes in the environment. Lower levels are intimidated to make suggestions: Some of the best suggestions in corporate history have come from those in the lower hierarchies, simply because they deal with the paper and the target audience on a direct basis. However, the lower level employees at TOI often feel intimidated to make suggestions to the higher ups, because of the size and history of the organisation. There is no easy, fast-tracked system to make suggestions without going through the hierarchy. This means that the newspaper is not as good as it could be, because there may be some excellent suggestions which have not been heard yet. Role, rather than person oriented culture: Over-emphasis on the role rather that the person performing the role makes the employee less loyal to the organisation. TOI needs to start building better relationships with its employees, so as to retain them. Constant turnover of employees affects the organisations stability and may lead to reduced quality of output. Further, employees motivation levels will be higher if the organisation culture starts focussing on the person as well. Action Plan for change: We have adopted the Kotters eight-step plan for implementing changes and improving the work culture of Times of India by doing away with the dysfunctional aspects of the internal working of the organisation. Step 1: Theres a need to create urgency for change among the employees. People tend to procrastinate and let things be as they are if not made to realize a need for urgent changes. For that, we need to give them a genuine reason that compels them change. As we have listed down in the dysfunctional elements, we need to bring these to the notice of employees to evoke an urge for change in them. Essentially, the employees of TOI need to realise that these are all dysfunctional elements, and the manner in which each of these is having a negative impact on them and well as the entire organisation. This can be done by organising a large meeting of the employees and the management, where the Chairman or any such respected and distinguished individuals lays out the dysfunctional elements and asks for the employees allegiance to organisational change. The Chairman should also outline how times have become very competitive, and that it is only on changing these negatives that the paper will continue to grow from strength to strength. Step 2: One needs to form a coalition with enough power to lead the change. In any real time organization, there would be advocates as well as opponents of change. Hence it becomes important to convince enough people for change that one is able to form a coalition that drives the whole process of change. One person cannot bring about a change; he can only show the direction. Hence, TOI could form a coalition consisting of a cross section of employees, management representatives, etc. These should represent all the various publications, departments and also all hierarchical levels. The coalition should be powerful enough to bring about the change, have respected members so employees believe in it, and also represent all sections of the organisation. By including even lower level employees, the change can be inclusive rather than forced. Step 3: It becomes important to create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision. People need to have a reason to support change. If theres no proper vision that directs the efforts for a change, then its like absence of an aim or goal which people might want to achieve. TOI should outline a new vision-a vision of a functional culture, where the existing dysfunctional elements have been reversed. This vision should be one of optimism and inclusion. It should stress the advantages to all the members of the organisation, as well as the paper itself. The vision should at the same time be specific, realistic, achievable and come with a specific timeline for implementation. Step 4: Only creating a new vision would not help until and unless it is communicated throughout the organisation. All the employees in the organisation should know the reason of so much efforts being put in the process to bring about a certain changes. The vision itself might act as a driving factor for many who wish to see themselves and the organisation at that level sometime in the future. This vision can be communicated through the organisation using verbal communication channels such as speeches, addresses by the management; informally by the superiors to their teams; or through the prevailing intra-organisational communication channels such as the in-house magazine, intranet, e-fliers, etc. The role of informal channels such as the grapevine should not be discounted. Step 5: Empowering others to act on the vision also becomes very important. For this, barriers to change should be removed and risk taking and creative problem solving should be encouraged. Like in the case of TOI, we saw that lower level employees are too intimidated to make any suggestions. Thus, these employees need to be empowered and should be listened to, to make the best of their knowledge. Hence, TOI can organise suggestion boxes, or a fast-track suggestion process whereby the lower level employees can make their views heard. Focus group meetings or participatory sessions with employees can also be conducted, to involve them in the change. All employees should be encouraged to be dynamic, experimentative, build relationships and understand the working of other departments. Step 6: Short term plans should be given as much importance as long term plans. There should be a reward system for short term wins. This helps to reward people at regular intervals and that acts as a motivating factor for more hard work in future. As we saw in case of TOI that the level of experimentation is very low, the employees should be encouraged to experiment more, and in case of any successful results, they should be awarded suitably. Step7: During the change process, it becomes necessary to consolidate the improvements brought about and reassess the effect of changed on the organisation so that necessary adjustments could be made in the new programs. For example, if the changes made in the internal functioning of TOI are focussed on more team works than individual performances, and if the results of that are not those desired or expected, then necessary changes should be brought about as soon as possible so that the organisation does not suffer through any losses. The HR can also hold sessions that involve members of the business and editorial departments, where they can bond and understand each others roles, so as to reduce conflict. To cement the dynamism in the organisation, and to make the higher-level managers more accessible to the lower level employees, mixers and informal sessions can be organised. Step8: It becomes important to reinforce any change that has brought about a success in the organisation. Hence, the new vision of the organisation should be consistently communicated on every occasion. Short term rewards should be complemented with long term rewards. Interview 1 Interview with Pooja Bhaktal, junior copy editor, TOI How long have you been working at TOI? I have been working at TOI for the past eleven months. I joined directly after my graduation; this is my first full-time job. Do you enjoy working at TOI? I do enjoy my work. It is a good place to work because there is a lot of history to the organisation; it is one of Indias oldest and best known papers. If you have a problem or a suggestion, how comfortable are you to approach your seniors? I am quite comfortable approaching my immediate superior, the senior copy editor. However, beyond that, I am not comfortable approaching the higher-ups. To be honest, the interaction with them is also limited. What has your interaction been with your higher-ups? Well, I was interviewed by the editor-in-chief of TOI. Occasionally, I receive mass mails for them, with certain guidelines or instructions for an on-going project. They sit separately from us; they have their own elevator, and even their own dining areas. So meetings are basically chance ones. They do not really mix around at the HR events either. Are your suggestions taken seriously, or even implemented? I have made a few content suggestions to my senior editor, but nothing too big, because I am still fairly new. I think I need to spend some more time and learn many more things before I am in a position to make suggestions. However, if I make a good suggestion, I do think it will be implemented. However, the sheer size and history of the organisation makes it very intimidating for a newcomer. Are there a lot of politics at TOI? Politics are everywhere! But the entire water cooler culture is not as much at TOI. I think that is because the organisation is very open with the employees, so there are not too many rumours or opportunities for speculation. We receive constant updates from HR, have our own intranet, have monthly in-house publications, briefings, etc. Also, promotions are strictly made on basis of experience. The evaluation process also seems very fair to me. Hence, the regular bitching-backstabbing routine does not exist here. Does the organisation encourage you to take risks? Although TOI is trying to change, it is predominantly an old school newspaper. So no, risk taking is not actually part of the culture. We are always encouraged to play safe, even if that may cost u a good opportunity. Does the organisation provide opportunities for employees of different departments to interact? Yes, the HR department often organises events. Recently, we have a New Years party. We also have celebrations for various festivals, an office picnic every six months, outings, joint training programmes, etc. Is there a lot of inter-departmental conflict or distance? The editorial and the business sides of the paper dont get along all that well, to be honest. Nether actually understands the other. The business wants to maximise profit, sell more ad space, put out news that is popular and will sell. The editorial wants to maintain the quality, keep more articles. Obviously there is bound to be regular tension. Even I deal with this on a daily basis. Does TOI encourage team work or individual work? How are assessments done? The stress is on individual work. Everyone has their own tasks and jobs to be done. Most of these are independent of others, even in the same department / editorial section. I cannot talk about the assessment procedure. Is there a fair amount of autonomy? Autonomy is there, it increases as you climb the ladder. No one interferes with your work; the editors are more like guides. You can approach them for help at any time. Once your story has been approved, it is all yours. Collaboration, however, is always available. Does the organisation encourage assertiveness or diplomacy? The focus is on diplomacy. Even if you have a problem with someone, you cannot go tell them directly. It has to be done tactfully. In my opinion, TOI encourages employees to discard their individuality and behave as TOI employees first. Is the organisation people-oriented or job-oriented? I would say job-oriented. It is a highly dynamic industry, people come and go. The jobs are constant. Do you get regular feedback, recognition for achievements, etc? We get annual evaluation reports. The organisation does not really give any other recognition or awards. We get regular feedback from our immediate superiors, and occasionally one level above. Are you a part of decision making processes of the organisation? No, employees, especially at the junior levels, are not involved. Thats because it is a very big organisation. Are you consulted or at least properly inform of changes? We are not consulted, but we are informed, usually in good time before the change happens. We also get relevant details and may approach the HR if we do not understand the change or have any sort of concerns. How important are ethics and morals in the organisation? Are they more important than results? Ethics are very, very important. We have an Ethics Handbook which we must follow at all costs, else risk being fired. This high value on ethics makes the organisation a very good place to work, because we follow the journalistic principles of honesty and integrity in letter and practise. This also translates into our behaviour at the workplace. Interview 2 Interview with Gauri Mane, Editor, Time N Style How long have you been working at TOI? I have been here for about six years, give or take. Do you enjoy working at TOI? I do enjoy working here. Thats why Ive stuck on for so long! There is something very honest about this organisation and what it stands for. There is also a lot of scope for growth and opportunities to learn because it is a huge media conglomerate. If you have a problem or a suggestion, how comfortable are you to approach your seniors? As an editor, it is my right and privilege to make suggestions and highlight issues. Are your suggestions taken seriously, or even implemented? Very often. I recently suggested that the website for my paper be revamped, which was approved by the Editorial board. Does the organisation encourage you to take risks? TOI is not really a risk-taking organisation. We are already established as the number one paper; hence the need to take crazy risks is minimal. Also, if we take a risk and that does not work out, it means that we are in trouble Does the organisation provide opportunities for employees of different departments to interact? Yes, the HR organises many such events that are for mixing and meeting. Is there a lot of inter-departmental conflict or distance? The legendary divide between the editorial and business departments exists too. It is a strange paradox. Both departments want the same objective-the success of TOI. Only the means to achieve them are different. The editorial sells the paper, but the ads sustain the paper. Who is to say which is more important? Sometimes, I feel employees of these two departments do not understand each other, and view each other as competitors rather than collaborators. Does TOI encourage team work or individual work? How are assessments done? Most of the work is individually done, that is simply the nature of the work. Plus, journalists are such free souls with strong, diverse views. Often, it is best to let them work individually. Do you not miss out on the advantages of collaboration? Collaboration also happens. No one can produce a full newspaper alone. It is just that the roles are properly divided. Division of labour, so to speak. Does the organisation encourage assertiveness or diplomacy? Diplomacy. The organisation does not like people who kick up the dust or yell themselves hoarse. There is a method to doing things diplomatically, which should be respected. There is no need to shake up the peace of the organisation. Is the organisation people-oriented or job-oriented? The newspaper industry used to be very people-oriented till the mid 1990s. Now it is job-oriented. People fill jobs, and not the other way around. Hard fact but true. Most of us here are on contract, and not employees for a lifetime. If we get a better opportunity elsewhere, we are free to leave. Of course, we do value the employees a lot! Do you get regular feedback, recognition for achievements, etc? We have our annual appraisals. I make sure I give my team regular feedback. There is no formal, pan-organisational recognition programme really. Are you consulted or at least properly inform of changes? I am consulted if it affects my paper or department. I am also informed of it properly through official channels. How important are ethics and morals in the organisation? Are they more important than results? Ethics are supreme at TOI. We value them above all else. We are a paper of values, morals and ethics. We do not resort to cheap stunts and gimmicks like other papers just for short term wins.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Throughout the opening chapter of Ã¢â¬ËLord of the FliesÃ¢â¬â¢ there are many events which foreshadow later events of the novel. Golding sets the beginning of the novel at the site of the plane rash, the scar. The scar had been Ã¢â¬ËsmashedÃ¢â¬â¢ and had Ã¢â¬Ëshaken tree trunksÃ¢â¬â¢. The boysÃ¢â¬â¢ presence on the island has already imprinted the island. It foreshadows the future corruption the boys will make on the previously uninhabited island. There are also hints of the dangerous side of the island. A bird described as a Ã¢â¬Ëvision of red and yellowÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â natureÃ¢â¬â¢s warning colours for danger Ã¢â¬â sounded a Ã¢â¬Ëwitch-like cryÃ¢â¬â¢ The Ã¢â¬Ëwitch-likeÃ¢â¬â¢ description of the cry foreshadows the ritualistic, savage and tribal state most of the boys will descend to. The potential danger is also shown by the twigs and thorns having Ã¢â¬ËscratchedÃ¢â¬â¢ Piggy. Additionally, the fruit is obviously inedible and causes Piggy Ã¢â¬ËpainÃ¢â¬â¢, a further demonstration of the islandÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËbadÃ¢â¬â¢ side. This foreshadows the islandÃ¢â¬â¢s many features that help contribute to the boysÃ¢â¬â¢ future: the pigs descending the choir into savage hunters; the rock and cliff edge contributing to PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s death; its location isolating the boys from civilisation. Another event prepared by the opening is Piggy and RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship. The contrast between the two characters is noticeable from the start. Piggy is shown to be rational and intelligent, an incredibly useful trait in the future. Whilst Ralph shows a childish innocence and optimism Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËHeÃ¢â¬â¢ll be backÃ¢â¬â¢. Ralph originally ignores Piggy; he is Ã¢â¬Ëobviously uninterestedÃ¢â¬â¢ in PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s rambles. However, he gradually begins to respond to PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s questions and he Ã¢â¬Ëlooked interestedÃ¢â¬â¢. This foreshadows how Ralph and PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s friendship will develop in the novel and how Ralph will come to value and appreciate PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and contributions. Additionally, Piggy Ã¢â¬Ëtook off his glasses and held them out to RalphÃ¢â¬â¢. This is a significant moment for many reasons. Firstly, it shows the trust already in their friendship; Piggy is reliant on the glasses to see and, without them, would be vulnerable. Secondly, the glasses come to be of great importance in the novel. They are the only piece of help from the outside World and are a necessity for starting the fires which get the boys rescued in the end. Lastly, they symbolise PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s clear-sightedness and insightful thinking which he gives to Ralph in later chapters when he is chief which proves to be invaluable information for Piggy. The line, said by Piggy: Ã¢â¬Å"I can hardly move with all these creepersÃ¢â¬ Could be a hint towards the littluns misinterpretation of the creepers being the Beast. The creepers restricting PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s movement could be a reference towards how the boys stayed primarily on the beach, the safest and most civilised place, away from the mysterious and potentially dangerous hidden depths of the forest. In conclusion, I think Golding used a range of significant details in the opening of Ã¢â¬ËLord of the FliesÃ¢â¬â¢ which are parallels of events which occur in later chapters. This provides an endearing journey with the boysÃ¢â¬â¢ life with Ã¢â¬Ëno grown-upsÃ¢â¬â¢ and no impending rules of civilisation.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Business Analysis Part III Beverly Mahone MGT/521 December 3, 2012 Robert dAlessio Business Analysis Part III Strategy management is the key to success in any organization. However, without the proper strategy and implementation, it is difficult for any business to survive regardless of the industry or the size of the company. The largest retail company in the world is Walmart. The success of Walmart is because of its sound strategic management decisions and it ability to implement its strategic decision. A major factor in the continued growth is the rapid growth strategy. The future for Walmart looks bright. Increasing profits and recognizing social and ethical responsibilities will provide Walmart with a comfortableÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The effects of the economic trends are also felt by Walmart. In an effort to cut cost, Wal-Mart had to eliminate health insurance coverage for part-time employees and increasing premiums for others (Wright, 2011). This strategy allowed Walmart to cut costs without eliminating positions or increasing prices. Before the economic downturn Wal-Mart implemented strategies to increase profits. In 2005, Walmart implemented a plan to target wealthier consumers with a more modern marketing campaign (Kabel, 2006). Walmart began stocking more high-end merchandise to cater to this group of consumers (Kabel, 2006). The ability to stay in business relies on a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to increase business during good economic times as well as bad. The two strategies Walmart used (targeting wealthier customer base and eliminating health coverage) proved that Walmart knows how to adapt to changing markets. Walmart has an awareness of the strategies to implement during economic upswings as well as downturns. Wal-Mart also focuses on meeting strategic goals to increase the bottom line for the company. One tactic Walmart started implementing involved opening stores in urban areas. However, the stores will be much smaller than the typical 150,000 square foot Ã¢â¬Å"big boxÃ¢â¬ model (Massey, 2010). The Ã¢â¬Å"SmallmartÃ¢â¬ stores allow the company to enter areas where large open areas are slim (Massey, 2010). This strategy allows the company to access an unobtainable customer base, bring jobs toShow MoreRelatedHow to Write an Extended Business Studies Response Essay754 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswill be assessed on how well you: * demonstrate knowledge and understanding relevant to the question * apply relevant business case study/studies and contemporary business issues * communicate using relevant business terminology and concepts * present a sustained, logical and cohesive response Remember an extended response is a structured essay not a business report with an executive summary and dot points throughout. Suggested word limit: 800 words. 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